The most important link between Marcus Garvey and Malcolm X was World War II Veteran Carlos Cooks. After Marcus Garvey was deported, it was Carlos Cooks who administered the Advance Division of the UNIA.
He founded the African Nationalist Pioneer Movement based on three objectives:
1. The total mobilization of all the material resources of the Black race in all areas of the world, binding them together into one grand racial hegemony, whose only purposes shall be the welfare and security of Black people everywhere
2. The activation of African-Community Leagues in all communities where people of the African ethnic group are in the majority. The economy of all African communities must be marshaled, controlled, and channeled in a progressive direction, so that the commerce business life, and body politics of the community be controlled totally by the resident majority.
3. The synchronization of all organizations, regardless of religious passions, or sectional sentiment, to one overall aim and endeavor towards the complete freedom of Africa, for the benefit of the African peoples of the world. This should include moral, physical and material support to the needy cause of the valiant Africans at home who are fighting against tremendous odds.
It was Carlos Cooks who maintained an African Nationalist Legion, mentally prepared and physically ready to join the African Liberation struggle, who designated August 17th – the birthday of Marcus Garvey – as the first Black holiday, official or unofficial, and who first formed an independent school, complete with a course in Kiswahili at a time (1954) when many of our people didn’t even know where Africa was, let alone what Swahili was.
His Nationalist Manifesto can be read below.
The Nationalist Manifesto
The time is at hand when the Black man must pause and take serious note of the rapid current of world events. Life for the People of African stock, has been for the past three centuries, a relentless struggle for survival. Not so much against the forces of nature, Nay! Nature blessed the African Race with the richest of all continents, and the finest of all climates, and it has equip the Black man with the greatest and most rugged physique among men, together with a woman whose wholesome beauty, sparkling eyes, rhythmic gait, warm tender smile, cheerful and affectionate disposition, cannot be excelled or rivaled by any other female.
The Black man’s menace, has been, and still is, the white man’s diabolical and determined plan to commit GENOCIDE! Even as they exterminated the American Indians, and the Australian Aborigines; so too, every plan, every scheme, points to their murderous intent to liquidate the African people.
As the great Bamganwato Chieftain Logumbula, asked in the late nineteenth century, when the British were barbarously exterminating the Bamganwatos: “Why do you kill my people?”
Today their method is subtler, but just as effective.
Hundreds of thousands died in Kenya, and many more are quartered in compounds on a starvation ration. Death to them will come through slow and painful agony of malnutrition. IT’S GENOCIDE!
In Cuba, under the pretense of vengeance against Batista’s Regime, Castro is wiping out the Black population.
The Black man, if he has any desire to survive, will have to embrace Black Nationalism — TOTALLY!
The greatest tools of the White Supremacist are the Flunky Vassals, the modern day Custodians of Uncle Tom’s Cabin, the Lackey’s that fought the doctrine of Marcus Garvey, the Stooges that advocates civil rights — social equality — and miscegenation in America.
The gang of British Toms, in the West Indies, that see themselves as a part of the British Empire, and encourages the Black man to sell his land and seek his fortunes in England, only to find upon arrival there, a hungry mob of Murder-bent Whites, waiting to bury them. IT’S GENOCIDE!
The African Nationalist Pioneer Movement, through its Executive Spokesman, Carlos A. Cooks, is calling on the world of Black men everywhere, to rally behind the doctrine of Black Nationalism.
There is no permanent future for the Black anywhere in America.
The integrationist doctrine, that have fostered so much strife, is but a death trap for the Blacks, deliberately agitated by people who do not belong to the race, does not have the interest of the race at heart, and are using the Black man as a distracting force, less what happened to them in Germany and other European Countries happen here.
The Nigger Stooges that they are using to perpetuate their cruel joke, would sell their own mothers into bondage, for the sake of being able to move around as Circus Clowns in the Circle of White Society. They may be black in Color, but they are Psychological Bastards, whose fate in the final hour of reckoning, will be the common end of a traitor.
Next to the White man, the greatest enemy of Africa and Black opportunity, ranks the integrationist, civil righters, miscegenationist, and close behind, comes the Communist, and those who would encourage the Black man to take his problem to the Lord in prayer and leave it there.
The gang in Africa who cannot understand that there cannot and will not be any Partnership between the African and the white man. It is not in the nature of the White man to share anything. Did he share America with the American Indian? No! Did he share Australia with Australian Bushman? No! Where is the American Indian and the Australian Bushman? They are both dead! The victim of their own charity and gullibility.
They too believed that they could share the land with the white man. Isn’t it strange that the African leaders cannot realize that the white man shares Europe with no one?
The picture in Africa from the standpoint of leadership, narrows down to two States that are potentially capable of spearheading the drive for total redemption of continental Africa; namely, Egypt, based on the dynamic drive of that great organizer, Abdel Gamal Nasser, and the Sudan, based on its vast land area and its strategic location. Ethiopia — under the present leadership, must be written off as futile encumbrance to the designs of a modern free Africa. Liberia is but an extension of White Imperialism. Ghana is a model for a new type of British Colonialism. Guinea is much too involved in the battle for survival at this time to make it’s power felt.
The position of Blacks in the Western World, should — and must be one of militant Nationalism…. The marshalling and organizing of all Black people, and the linking up of their power, with the Patriots of Africa, Organizing Combat Brigades, Medical Units, and Pioneer Corps. These should be organized and held in readiness, so that when the hour of decision tolls, Black men everywhere would not only be willing, but they shall be able, to answer the call.
By Carlos A. Cooks Founder, The African Nationalist Pioneer Movement